100 N/m2

1000 N/m2

1x104 N/m2

1x105 N/m2

Crank

Connecting rod

Crank pin

Cross-head

Equal to the hoop stress

Twice the hoop stress

Half of the hoop stress

One-fourth of hoop stress

Substitution solid solution

Interstitial solid solution

Intermetallic compounds

All of the above

Actual COP / Theoretical COP

Theoretical COP / Actual COP

Actual COP x Theoretical COP

1 - (Actual COP x Theoretical COP)