t + 0.5 d

t + d

t+1.5d

t + 2d

"cosecx"

"- cosx"

"-cosecx"

"cosx"

(Pie+1)*d/2

(Pie+2)*d/2

(Pie+3)*d/2

(Pie+4)*d/2

Spot welding

Projection welding

Seam welding

Upset welding

(Length of cut x No. of cuts)/(Feed x r.p.m)

(Feed x r.p.m)/(Length of cut x No. of cuts)

(Lengt of cut x Feed)/(No. of cuts x r.p.m)

(Length of cut x r.p.m)/(Feed x No. of cuts)