Laser Beam Machining (LBM) is used for machining very small holes and cutting complex profiles in thin and hard materials like ceramics.
In foundry work, the terms cope and drag refer respectively to the upper and lower parts of a two-part casting flask, used in sand casting. The flask is a wood or metal frame, which Cope And Drag Pattern contains the molding sand, providing support to the sand as the metal is poured into the mold. In flaskless molding, the same terms are used, cope for the top or upper piece and drag for the bottom or lower piece.
In some cases the part design is more complicated, and intermediate flasks and mold sections are needed between the cope and drag. These sections are called cheeks.
The specific heat of a substance my be broadly defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of its unit mass through 1 degree. All the liquids and solids have one specific heat only. But a gas can have any number of specific heats depending upon the conditions, under which it is heated.
Specific heat at constant volume is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a gas throught 1 degree, when it is heat at constant volume.
Specific heat at constant pressure is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a gas through 1 degree, when it is heated at constant pressure.
The ratio of specific heat at constant pressure Cp and specific heat at constant volume Cv is always more than one.